Structure & Bridge Division

Bridge Construction Best Practices
Bridge DemolitionBridge MaterialsBridge PreservationCauseway and CofferdamsCulvertsSubstructureSubsurfaceSuperstructureWalls Associated with Bridges

1.4 Superstructure   

1.4.1. S&B  |  1.4.2. PP | 1.4.3 Videos  |  1.4.4. Decks   |  1.4.5. Reinforced Concrete  |  1.4.6. Prestressed Concrete |  1.4.7. SteelWeldingHigh Strength BoltingPaintingHeat Straightening1.4.8. Bearings1.4.9. Parapets and Railings 

1.4.2. PP Presentations CITBC Module 4. PP-Types of Bridges
 - 2018 CITBC Module 5. PP-Single or Multi-Span Bridges - 2018 CITBC Module 7. PP-Shop Drawings - 2018  
Video. Why Concrete Needs Reinforcement. Reinforced concrete beam. Pre-tensioned concrete beam. Post-tensioned concrete beam. Very basic video demonstrating the use of reinforcement to handle the tension due to loading while the concrete handles the compression. (8:10)    

1.4.4. Subsection 4. Decks

1.4.5. Reinforced Concrete

1.4.6. Prestressed Concrete

1.4.7. Steel Welding

  • PP - Basic Welding Inspection for Field Inspectors  - Bill Via.
  • CITBC Module 21. PP-Welding - 2018  
  • Report No. FHWA-HIF-19-088. Dated September 2019. Bridge Welding Reference Manual.  Covers the technical aspects of welding of highway structures with an emphasis on steel highway bridges and touches on ancillary issues such as field welding, aluminum, stainless steel, reinforcing steel, and welding of coated members. Explains welding specifications governing highway structures, namely the AASHTO/AWS D1.5/D1.5M “Bridge Welding Code” (2015) and the AWS D1.1/D1.1M “Structural Welding Code-Steel” (2015). (.pdf, 15.5 mb)     
  • FHWA Memorandum. Dated May 10, 2018. Use of Electroslag Welding in Highway Bridges and Structures. The memo provides updated guidance on the specification and use of electroslag welding in highway bridges and other structures. The Narrow Gap Improved Electroslag Welding (NGI-ESW) new process utilizes a narrower gap and a fixed, consumable, electrode guide in combination with reduced voltages and higher welding currents. The NGI-ESW process was integrated into the AASHTO/AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code:2010, with a synonymous name, “Electroslag Welding-Narrow Gap” (ESW-NG).  The memo references six FHWA sponsored research reports on Electroslag Welding. The Materials Division Steel Structures Section should be contacted when a fabricator or contractor wants to use Electroslag Welding. (.pdf, 0.3 mb)

High Strength Bolting


Heat Straightening.  A repair process in which a limited amount of heat is applied in specific patterns to the deformed regions of damaged steel in repetitive heating and cooling cycles to produce a gradual straightening of the material. A benefit of using the process is that the repairs generally don't require the temporary shoring of the bridge. Another benefit is that the process can eliminate or greatly curtail the need for traffic detours. When done properly, the heat-straightening technique is an effective and economical approach that can be used in many damage cases. The same principle can also be applied to the fabrication of new bridges for curving or cambering a girder.  

  • Report No. FHWA-IF-08-999 dated August 2008. Guide for Heat-Straightening of Damaged Steel Bridge Members. Report provides comprehensive guidelines on heat straightening repair techniques for damaged steel bridge members. (.pdf, 3.3 mb) 
  • Report No. FHWA-IF-99-004. Dated October 1998. Heat-Straightening Repairs of Damaged Steel Bridges. A Manual of Practice and Technical Guide. The report provides comprehensive guidelines on heat straightening repair techniques for damaged steel bridge members. (.pdf, 24.5 mb)

1.4.8. Bridge Bearings 

1.4.9. Parapets and Railings

Page last modified: Dec. 26, 2021